Bibliografia: Suplementy diety i surowce naturalne

Pełne piśmiennictwo do Zeszytów Aptecznych: Bezpieczeństwo stosowania leków u osób starszych, Rozdział 6. Suplementy diety i surowce naturalne. Numeracja odpowiada indeksom w tekście.

Rozdział 6.2 Bacopa (Bacopa mannieri L.)

[1] Stough C, Lloyd J, Clarke J, et al.  The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology 2001;156:481-4.

[2] Roodenrys, S., Booth, D., Bulzomi, S., Phipps, A., Micallef, C., and Smoker, J. Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on human memory. Neuropsychopharmacology 2002;27(2):279-281.

[3] Yadav SK, Jain AK, Tripathi SN, Gupta JP.  Irritable bowel syndrome: therapeutic evaluation of indigenous drugs. Indian J Med Res 1989;90:496-503.

[4] Singh, R. H. and Singh, L. Studies on the Anti-Anxiety Effect of the Medhya Rasayana Drug, Brahmi (Bacopa monniera Wettst.) – Part I. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha 1980;1(1):133-148.

[5] Mukherjee, G. D. and Dey, C. D. Clinical trial on Brahmi. I. J.Exp.Med.Sci. 1966;10(1):5-11.

[6] Singh, R. H. and Singh, L. Studies on the Anti-Anxiety Effect of the Medhya Rasayana Drug, Brahmi (Bacopa monniera Wettst.) – Part I. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha 1980;1(1):133-148.

[7] Morgan A, Stevens J. Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16:753-9.

[8] Kar, A., Panda, S., and Bharti, S. Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;81(2):281-285.

Rozdział 6.3 Głóg  (Crataegus monogyna, Crataegus oxycantha l.)

[1] Weng WL, Zhang WQ, Liu FZ, and et al. Therapeutic effect of Crataegus pinnatifida on 46 cases of angina pectoris–a double blind study. J Tradit Chin Med 1984;4:293-94.

[2] Schmidt U, Kuhn U, Ploch M, Hubner WD.  Efficacy of the Hawthorne (Crataegus) Preparation LI 132 in 78 patients with chronic congestive heart failure defined as NYHA functional class II.  Phytomedicine 1994;1:17-24.

[3] Zapfe jun G.  Clinical efficacy of crataegus extract WS 1442 in congestive heart failure NYHA class II. Phytomedicine 2001;8:262-6.

[4] Degenring FH, Suter A, Weber M, Saller R.  A randomised double blind placebo controlled clinical trial of a standardised extract of fresh Crataegus berries (Crataegisan) in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure NYHA II. Phytomedicine 2003;10:363-9

[5] Pittler MH, Guo R, and Ernst E. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure. Cochrane.Database.Syst Rev 2008:CD005312

[6] Forster A, Forster K, Buhring M, et al. [Crataegus for moderately reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Ergospirometric monitoring study with 72 patients in a double-blind comparison with placebo]. Munch Med Wschr 1994;136:s21-s26.

[7] Iwamoto M, Sato T, Ishizaki T. [The clinical effect of Crataegus in heart disease of ischemic or hypertensive origin. A multicenter double-blind study].  Planta Med 1981;42:1-16.

[8] Von Holubarsch, CJ, Niestroj M, Wassmer A, et al. [Hawthorn extract WS 1442 in the treatment of patients with heart failure and LVEF of 25%-35%]. MMW.Fortschr.Med 7-1-2010;152:56-61. [9] Weikl A, Assmus KD, Neukum-Schmidt A, et al. [Crataegus Special Extract WS 1442. Assessment of objective effectiveness in patients with heart failure (NYHA II)]. Fortschr Med 1996;114:291-6. PMID: 8974970.

[10]Leuchtgens H. [Crataegus Special Extract WS 1442 in NYHA II heart failure. A placebo controlled randomized double-blind study]. Fortschr Med 1993;111:352-4.

[11] Tauchert M.  Efficacy and safety of crataegus extract WS 1442 in comparison with placebo in patients with chronic stable New York Heart Association class-III heart failure. Am Heart J 2002;143:910-5.

[12] Von Eiff M, Brunner H, Haegeli A, et al. Hawthorn / passion flower extract and improvement in physical exercise capacity of patients with dyspnoea Class II of the NYHA functional classifications. Acta Therapeutica 1994;20:47-66.

[13] Zick SM, Vautaw BM, Gillespie B, Aaronson KD. Hawthorn Extract Randomized Blinded Chronic Heart Failure (HERB CHF) trial. Eur J Heart Fail. 2009;11:990-99.

[14] Holubarsch CJ, Colucci WS, Meinertz T, et al.  The efficacy and safety of Crataegus extract WS 1442 in patients with heart failure: the SPICE trial.  Eur J Heart Fail 2008;10:1255-63.

[15] Zick SM, Gillespie B, Aaronson KD.  The effect of Crataegus oxycantha Special Extract WS 1442 on clinical progression in patients with mild to moderate symptoms of heart failure.  Eur J Heart Fail  2008;10:587-93.

[16] Bourin M, Bougerol T, Guitton B, Broutin E. A combination of plant extracts in the treatment of outpatients with adjustment disorder with anxious mood: controlled study vs placebo. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 1997;11:127-32.

[17] Werner NS, Duschek S, and Schandry R. D-camphor-crataegus berry extract combination increases blood pressure and cognitive functioning in the elderly – a randomized, placebo controlled double blind study. Phytomedicine. 2009;16:1077-82.

[18] Erfurt L, Schandry R, Rubenbauer S, Braun U. The effects of repeated administration of camphor-crataegus berry extract combination on blood pressure and on attentional performance- a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Phytomedicine. 2014;21(11):1349-55.

[19] Walker AF,  Marakis G, Simpson E, et al. Hypotensive effects of hawthorn for patients with diabetes taking prescription drugs: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Gen.Pract 2006;56:437-43.

[20] Dalli E, Colomer E, Tormos MC, et al. Crataegus laevigata decreases neutrophil elastase and has hypolipidemic effect: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 6-15-2011;18:769-75.

[21] Rasmussen, P. Hawthorn–Crataegus monogyna (common hawthorn) or Crataegus laevigata (midland hawthorn; Crataegus oxyacantha); also known as haw, thornapple, maythorn, whitethorn. J Prim.Health Care 2011;3(1):63-64.

[22] Chang Q, Zuo Z, Harrison F, Chow MS. Hawthorn. J Clin Pharmacol 2002;42:605-12.

[23] Tankanow R, Tamer HR, Streetman DS, et al.  Interaction study between digoxin and a preparation of hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha). J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2003;43:637-42.

Rozdział 6.4 Lecytyna

[1] Gelenberg, A. J., Doller-Wojcik, J. C., and Growdon, J. H. Choline and lecithin in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: preliminary results from a pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 1979;136(6):772-776.

[2] Drachman DA, Glosser G, Fleming P, et al. Memory decline in the aged: treatment with lecithin and physostigmine. Neurology 1982;32:944-50. .

[3] Harris CM, Dysken MW, Fovall P, Davis JM. Effect of lecithin on memory in normal adults. Am J Psychiatry 1983;140:1010-2.

[4] Holan KR, Holzbach RT, Hsieh JY, et al. Effect of oral administration of essential phospholipid, beta-glycerophosphate, and linoleic acid on biliary lipids in patients with cholelithiasis. Digestion 1979;19:251-8.

[5] Brinkman SD, Smith RC, Meyer JS, et al. Lecithin and memory training in suspected Alzheimer’s disease. J Gerontol 1982;37:4-9.

[6] Brinkman SD, Pomara N, Goodnick PJ, et al. A dose-ranging study of lecithin in the treatment of primary degenerative dementia (Alzheimer disease). J Clin Psychopharmacol 1982;2:281-5.

[7] Pomara N, Domino EF, Yoon H, et al. Failure of single-dose lecithin to alter aspects of central cholinergic activity in Alzheimer’s disease. J Clin Psychiatry 1983;44:293-5. PMID: 6874650.

[8] Etienne P, Dastoor D, Gauthier S, et al. Alzheimer disease: lack of effect of lecithin treatment for 3 months. Neurol 1981;31:1552-4.

[9] Maltby N, Broe GA, Creasey H, et al. Efficacy of tacrine and lecithin in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: double-blind trial. BMJ 1994;308:879-83.

[10] Chatellier G, Lacomblez L. Tacrine (tetrahydroaminoacridine; THA) and lecithin in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type: a multicentre trial. Groupe Francais d’Etude de la Tetrahydroaminoacridine. BMJ 1990;300:495-9.

[11] Fitten LJ, Perryman KM, Gross PL, et al. Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease with short- and long-term oral THA and lecithin: a double-blind study. Am J Psychiatry 1990;147:239-42.

[12] Heyman A, Schmechel D, Wilkinson W, et al. Failure of long term high-dose lecithin to retard progression of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. J Neural Transm Suppl 1987;24:279-86.

[13] Growdon JH, Corkin S, Huff FJ, et al. Piracetam combined with lecithin in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 1986;7:269-76.

[14] Jenike MA, Albert MS, Heller H, et al. Combination therapy with lecithin and ergoloid mesylates for Alzheimer’s disease. J Clin Psychiatry 1986;47:249-51.

[15] Little A, Levy R, Chuaqui-Kidd P, Hand D. A double-blind, placebo controlled trial of high-dose lecithin in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1985;48:736-42.

[16] Di Prospero NA, Sumner CJ, Penzak SR, et al. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of high-dose idebenone in patients with Friedreich ataxia. Arch Neurol 2007;64:803-8.

[17] Fisman M, Merskey H, Helmes E,  et al. Double blind study of lecithin in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Can.J Psychiatry 1981;26:426-28.

[18] Buchman AL, Dubin M, Jenden D, et al. Lecithin increases plasma free choline and decreases hepatic steatosis in long-term total parenteral nutrition patients. Gastroenterology 1992;102:1363-70.

[19] Simons LA, Hickie JB, Ruys J.  Treatment of hypercholesterolaemia with oral lecithin.  Aust N Z J Med 1977;7:262-6.

[20] Evans M, Njike VY, Hoxley M, et al.  Effect of soy isoflavone protein and soy lecithin on endothelial function in healthy postmenopausal women. Menopause 2007;14:141-9.

[21] Oosthuizen W, Vorster HH, Vermaak WJ, et al. Lecithin has no effect on serum lipoprotein, plasma fibrinogen and macro molecular protein complex levels in hyperlipidaemic men in a double-blind controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:419-24.

[22] Tweedy JR and Garcia CA. Lecithin treatment of cognitively impaired Parkinson’s patients. Eur J Clin Invest 1982;12:87-90.

[23] Volz, H. P., Hehnke, U., and Hauke, W. [Improvement in quality of life in the elderly. Results of a placebo-controlled study on the efficacy and tolerability of lecithin fluid in patients with impaired cognitive functions]. MMW Fortschr Med 12-9-2004;146(Suppl 3-4):99-106.

[24] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (2000). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

Rozdział 6.5 Miłorząb japoński (Ginkgo biloba L.)

[1] Rigney U, Kimber S, Hindmarch I.  The effects of acute doses of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract on memory and psychomotor performance in volunteers.  Phytother Res 1999;13:408-15.

[2] Subhan Z, Hindmarch I.  The psychopharmacological effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in normal healthy volunteers.  Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1984;4:89-93. PMID:

[3] Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA.  The dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000;151:416-23.

[4] Polich J, Gloria R. Cognitive effects of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine compound in normal adults: systematic assessment of perception, attention and memory. Hum Psychopharmacol 2001;16:409-16.

[5] Stough C, Clarke J, Lloyd J, Nathan PJ. Neuropsychological changes after 30-day Ginkgo biloba administration in healthy participants. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol  2001;4:131-4 .

[6] Mix JA, Crews WD.  A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:267-277.

[7] Wesnes KA, Ward T, McGinty A, Petrini O. The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000;152:353-61.

[8] Kaschel, R. Specific memory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in middle-aged healthy volunteers. Phytomedicine 11-15-2011;18(14):1202-1207.

[9] Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Acute, dose-dependent cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng and their combination in healthy young volunteers: differential interactions with cognitive demand. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:35-44.

[10] Singh, B., Song, H., Liu, X. D., Hardy, M., Liu, G. Z., Vinjamury, S. P., and Martirosian, C. D. Dangshen (Codonopsis pilosula) and Bai guo (Gingko biloba) enhance learning and memory. Altern Ther Health Med 2004;10(4):52-56.

[11] Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, et al.  A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group. JAMA 1997;278:1327-32.

[12] Oken BS, Storzbach DM, Kaye JA.  The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 1998;55:1409-15.

[13] Wesnes K, Simmons D, Rook M, Simpson P.  A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of Tanakan in the treatment of idiopathic cognitive impairment in the elderly.  Human Psychopharmacol 1987;2:159-69.

[14] Hofferberth B. The efficacy of Egb 761 in patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on different levels of investigation. Human Psychopharmacol 1994;9:215-22.

[15] Hopfenmuller W.  [Evidence for a therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba special extract. Meta-analysis of 11 clinical studies in patients with cerebrovascular insufficiency in old age].  Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44:1005-13.

[16] Kleijnen J, Knipschild P.  Ginkgo biloba for cerebral insufficiency.  Br J Clin Pharmacol 1992;34:352-8.

[17] Wettstein A.  Cholinesterase inhibitors and Gingko extracts- are they comparable in the treatment of dementia?  Comparison of published, placebo-controlled efficacy studies of at least six months duration (abstract).  Phytomedicine 2000;6:393-401.

[18] Kanowski S, Herrmann WM, Stephan K, et al.  Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract (EGb 761) in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. Pharmacopsychiatry 1996;29:47-56.

[19] Le Bars PL, Kieser M, Itil KZ.  A 26-week analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2000;11:230-7.

[20] Kurz A, Van Baelen B. Ginkgo biloba compared with cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of dementia: a review based on meta-analyses by the Cochrane collaboration. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;18:217-26.

[21] Birks J, Grimley Evans J. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(2):CD003120.

[22] Ihl R, Tribanek M, Bachinskaya N; GOTADAY Study Group. Efficacy and tolerability of a once daily formulation of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia: results from a randomised controlled trial. Pharmacopsychiatry 2012;45:41-6.

[23] Ihl R, Tribanek M, Bachinskaya N. Baseline neuropsychiatric symptoms are effect modifiers in Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) treatment of dementia with neuropsychiatric features.  Retrospective data analyses of a randomized controlled trial. J Neurol Sci 2010;299:184-7.

[24] Birks, J. and Grimley, Evans J. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst.Rev. 2009;(1):CD003120.

[25] Napryeyenko, O., Sonnik, G., and Tartakovsky, I. Efficacy and tolerability of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 by type of dementia: analyses of a randomised controlled trial. J Neurol.Sci 8-15-2009;283(1-2):224-229.

[26] Wang, B. S., Wang, H., Song, Y. Y., Qi, H., Rong, Z. X., Wang, B. S., Zhang, L., and Chen, H. Z. Effectiveness of standardized ginkgo biloba extract on cognitive symptoms of dementia with a six-month treatment: a bivariate random effect meta-analysis. Pharmacopsychiatry 2010;43(3):86-91.

[27] Weinmann, S., Roll, S., Schwarzbach, C., Vauth, C., and Willich, S. N. Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC.Geriatr. 2010;10:14.

[28] Janssen, I. M., Sturtz, S., Skipka, G., Zentner, A., Velasco, Garrido M., and Busse, R. Ginkgo biloba in Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2010;160(21-22):539-546.

[29] Zhang, S. J. and Xue, Z. Y. Effect of Western medicine therapy assisted by Ginkgo biloba tablet on vascular cognitive impairment of none dementia. Asian Pac.J Trop.Med 2012;5(8):661-664.

[30] Canevelli M, Adali N, Kelaiditi E, Cantet C, Ousset PJ, Cesari M; ICTUS/DSA Group. Effects of Gingko biloba supplementation in Alzheimer’s disease patients receiving cholinesterase inhibitors: data from the ICTUS study. Phytomedicine 2014;21(6):888-92.

[31] Rainer M, Mucke H, Schlaefke S. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in the treatment of dementia: a pharmacoeconomic analysis of the Austrian setting. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2013;125(1-2):8-15.

[32] Yang M, Xu DD, Zhang Y, Liu X, Hoeven R, Cho WC. A systematic review on natural medicines for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease with meta-analyses of intervention effect of ginkgo. Am J Chin Med 2014;42(3):505-21.

[33] van Dongen MC, van Rossum E, Kessels AG, et al.  The efficacy of ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: new results of a randomized clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48:1183-94.

[34] Schneider LS, DeKosky ST, Farlow MR, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of two doses of Ginkgo biloba extract in dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Curr Alzheimer Res 2005;2:541-51.

[35] Van Dongen, M., van Rossum, E., Kessels, A., Sielhorst, H., and Knipschild, P. Ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Epidemiol. 2003;56(4):367-376..

[36] Snitz, B. E. et al.: Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults: a randomized trial. JAMA 12-23-2009;302(24):2663-2670.

[37] Yang Z, Li W Huang T Chen J Zhang X. Meta-analysis of Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Neural Regeneration Research. 2011;6(15):1125-1129.

[38] Nasab NM, Bahrammi MA, Nikpour MR, Rahim F, Naghibis SN. Efficacy of rivastigmine in comparison to ginkgo for treating Alzheimer’s dementia. J Pak Med Assoc 2012;62(7):677-80.

[39] Mazza M, Capuano A, Bria P, Mazza S. Ginkgo biloba and donepezil: a comparison in the treatment of Alzheimer’s dementia in a randomized placebo-controlled double blind study. Eur J Neruol 2006;13:981-5.

[40] Yancheva, S. et al: Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R), donepezil or both combined in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, double-blind, exploratory trial. Aging Ment.Health 2009;13(2):183-190.

[41] Dartigues JF, Carcaillon L, Helmer C, et al. Vasodilators and nootropics as predictors of dementia and mortality in the PAQUID cohort. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:395-9.

[42] Lanthony P, Cosson JP.  [The course of color vision in early diabetic retinopathy treated with ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary, double-blind versus placebo study].  J Fr Ophtalmol 1988;11:671-4.

[43] Schweizer J, Hautmann C.  Comparison of two dosages of Ginkgo biloba extract Egb 761 in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease Fontain’s stage llb / a randomised, double-blind, multicentric clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49:900-4.

[44] Pittler MH, Ernst E. Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of intermittent claudication: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Med 2000;108:276-81.

[45] Li AL, Shi YD, Landsmann B, et al.  Hemorheology and walking of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases patients during treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract.  Chung Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao 1998;19:417-21.

[46] Peters H, Kieser M, Holscher U.  Demonstration of the efficacy of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on intermittent claudication – a placebo-controlled, double-blind multicenter trial.  Vasa 1998;27:106-10.

[47] LH, Ives DG, Fitzpatrick AL, et al. Does Ginkgo biloba reduce the risk of cardiovascular events? Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2010;3:41-7.

[48] Schweizer J, Hautmann C.  Comparison of two dosages of Ginkgo biloba extract Egb 761 in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease Fontain’s stage llb / a randomised, double-blind, multicentric clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49:900-4.

[49] Diamond BJ, Shiflett SC, Reiwel N, et al.  Ginkgo biloba extract: mechanisms and clinical indications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:668-78.

[50] Cesarani A, Meloni F, Alpini D, et al.  Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in the treatment of equilibrium disorders.  Adv Ther 1998;15:291-304.

[51] Haguenauer JP, Cantenot F, Koskas H, Pierart H.  [Treatment of equilibrium disorders with Ginkgo biloba extract.  A multicenter, double-blind drug vs. placebo study]. Presse Med 1986;15:1569-72.

[52] Brautigam MR, Blommaert FA, Verleye G, et al.  Treatment of age-related memory complaints with Ginkgo biloba extract: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine 1998;5:425-34.

[53] Rai GS, Shovlin C, Wesnes KA.  A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Ginkgo biloba extract (’tanakan') in elderly outpatients with mild to moderate memory impairment.  Curr Med Res Opin 1991;12:350-5.

[54] Mix JA, Crews WD Jr.  An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults. J Altern Complement Med 2000;6:219-29.

[55] Solomon PR, Adams F, Silver A, et al. Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA  2002;288:835-40.

[56] Nathan PJ, Ricketts E, Wesnes K, et al.  The acute nootropic effects of Ginkgo biloba in healthy older human subjects: a preliminary investigation. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:45-9.

[57] Dodge HH, Zitzelberger T, Oken BS, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of ginkgo biloba for the prevention of cognitive decline. Neurology 2008;70(19 Pt 2):1809-17.

[58] Ashton AK, Ahrens K, Gupta S, Masand PS. Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction and Ginkgo biloba. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:836-7.

[59] Balon R.  Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction?  J Sex Marital Ther 1999;25:1-2.

[60] Levine SB. Caution recommended. J Sex Marital Ther 1999;25:2-5.

[61] Kang BJ, Lee SJ, Kim MD, Cho MJ. A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:279-84.

[62] Wheatley D. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba in sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs. Hum Psychopharmacol 2004;19:545-8.

[63] Drew S, Davies E. Effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba in treating tinnitus: double blind, placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2001;322:73

[64] Vorberg G. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE): A long-term study of chronic cerebral insufficiency in geriatric patients. Clin Trials J 1985;22:149-57.

[65] Holgers KM, Axelsson A, Pringle I.  Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of tinnitus. Audiol 1994;33:85-92.

[66] Meyer B. [Multicenter, randomized, double-blind drug vs. placebo study of the treatment of tinnitus with Ginkgo biloba extract]. Presse Med 1986;15:1562-4.

[67] Lebuisson DA, Leroy L, Rigal G.  [Treatment of senile macular degeneration with Ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary double-blind drug vs. placebo study].  (Abstract). Presse Med 1986;15:1556-8.

[68] Evans JR.  Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;(2):CD001775. PMID: 10796819.

[69] Burschka MA, Hassan HA, Reineke T, et al. Effect of treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 (oral) on unilateral idiopathic sudden hearing loss in a prospective randomized double-blind study of 106 outpatients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2001;258:213-9.

[70] Zeng X, Liu M, Yang Y, et al. Ginkgo biloba for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(4):CD003691.

Rozdział 6.6 Palma sabalowa (Serenoa repens L.)

[1] Carballido, J., Ruiz-Cerda, J. L., Unda, M., Baena, V., Campoy, P., Manasanch, J., and Slof, J. [Economic evaluation of medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in the specialised care setting in Spain. Application to the cost-effectiveness of two drugs frequently used in its treatment]. Actas Urol.Esp. 2008;32(9):916-925.

[2] Bent S, Kane C, Shinohara K, et al.  Saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia.  N Engl J Med 2006;354:557-66.

[3] Anceschi, R., Bisi, M., Ghidini, N., Ferrari, G., and Ferrari, P. Serenoa repens (Permixon(R)) reduces intra- and postoperative complications of surgical treatments of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Minerva Urol.Nefrol. 2010;62(3):219-223.

[4] Pecoraro, S., Annecchiarico, A., Gambardella, M. C., and Sepe, G. [Efficacy of pretreatment with Serenoa repens on bleeding associated with transurethral resection of prostate]. Minerva Urol.Nefrol. 2004;56(1):73-78.

[5] Tuncel A, Ener K, Han O, et al.  Effects of short-term dutasteride and Serenoa repens on perioperative bleeding and microvessel density in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2009;43:377-82.

[6] Wilt TJ, Ishani A, Stark G, et al. Saw palmetto extracts for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review.  JAMA 1998;280:1604-9.

[7] Dukes, MNG. Meyler’s Side Effects of Drugs. 13th ed. Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1997.

[8] Champault G, Patel JC, Bonnard AM.  A double-blind trial of an extract of the plant Serenoa repens in benign prostatic hyperplasia.  Br J Clin Pharmacol 1984;18:461-2.

[9]Braeckman J.  The extract of serenoa repens in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a multicenter open study.  Curr Ther Res 1994;55:776-85.

[10] Reece-Smith H, Memon A, Smart CJ, Dewbury K.  The value of permixon in benign prostatic hypertrophy.  Br J Urol 1986;58:36-40.

[11] Wilt T, Ishani A, Stark G, et al.  Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;(2):CD001423.

[12] Boyle P, Robertson C, Lowe F, Roehrborn C.  Meta-analysis of clinical trials of permixon in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.  Urology 2000;55:533-9.

[13] Stepanov VN, Siniakova LA, Sarrazin B, Raynaud JP.  Efficacy and tolerability of the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) in benign prostatic hyperplasia: a double-blind comparison of two dosage regimens.  Adv Ther 1999;16:231-41.

[14] Bayne CW, Donnelly F, Ross M, Habib FK.  Serenoa repens (Permixon): a 5 alpha-reductase types I and II inhibitor-new evidence in a coculture model of BPH.  Prostate 1999;40:232-41.

[15] Carbin BE, Larsson B, Lindahl O.  Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with phytosterols.  Br J Urol 1990;66:639-41.

[16] Descotes JL, Rambeaud JJ, Deschaseaux P, Faure G.  Placebo-controlled evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of Permixon in benign prostatic hyperplasia after exclusion of placebo responders  Clin Drug Invest 1995; 9:291-7.

[17] Romics I, Schmitz H, Frang D. Experience in treating benign prostatic hypertrophy with Sabal serrulata for one year. Int Urol Nephrol  1993;25:565-9.

[18] Wilt T, Ishani A, Mac Donald R. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;(3):CD001423.

[19] Roveda S and Colombo P. Clinical controlled trial on therapeutical bioequivalence and tolerability of Serenoa repens oral capsules 160mg or rectal capsules 640mg. Arch Med Interna 1994;46(2):61-75.

[20] Carraro JC, Raynaud JP, Koch G, et al.  Comparison of phytotherapy (Permixon) with finasteride in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized international study of 1,098 patients.  Prostate 1996;29:231-40.

[21] Sokeland J.  Combined sabal and urtica extract compared with finasteride in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: analysis of prostate volume and therapeutic outcome.  BJU Int 2000;86:439-42.

[22] Suter A, Saller R, Riedi E, Heinrich M. Improving BPH symptoms and sexual dysfunctions with a saw palmetto preparation? Results from a pilot trial. Results from a pilot trial. Phytother Res 2012 Apr 23. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4696.

[23] Glemain P, Coulange C, Grapin FN, Muszynski RC. No benefit in combining tamsulosin with Serenoa repens versus tamsulosin alone on storage/filling and voiding lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol 2001;167:374.

[24] Glemain, P., Coulange, C., Billebaud, T., Gattegno, B., Muszynski, R., and Loeb, G. [Tamsulosin with or without Serenoa repens in benign prostatic hyperplasia: the OCOS trial]. Prog.Urol. 2002;12(3):395-403

[25] Bent S, Kane C, Shinohara K, et al.  Saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia.  N Engl J Med 2006;354:557-66.

[26] Barry MJ, Meleth S, Lee JY, et al. Effect of increasing doses of saw palmetto on lower urinary tract symptoms: a randomized trial.  JAMA 2011;306:1344-51.

[27] Willetts KE, Clements MS, Champion S, et al.  Serenoa repens extract for benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized controlled trial. BJU Int 2003;92:267-70.

[28] Shi, R., Xie, Q., Gang, X., Lun, J., Cheng, L., Pantuck, A., and Rao, J. Effect of saw palmetto soft gel capsule on lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized trial in Shanghai, China. J.Urol. 2008;179(2):610-615. PMID: 18082217.

[29] Marks L, Partin AW, Epstein JI, et al.  Effects of a saw palmetto herbal blend in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.  J Urol 2000;163:1451-6.

[30] Prager N, Bickett K, French N, Marcovici G. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of botanically derived inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.  J Altern Complement Med 2002;8:143-52.

[31] Morganti P, Fabrizi G, James B, and et al. Effect of gelatin-cystine and Serenoa repens extract on free radicals level and hair growth. J Appl Cosmetol 1998;16:57-64.

[32] Timmermans, L. M. and Timmermans, L. G., Jr. [Determination of the activity of extracts of Echinaceae and Sabal in the treatment of idiopathic megabladder in women]. Acta Urol Belg. 1990;58(2):43-59.

[33] Bonnar-Pizzorno RM, Littman AJ, Kestin M, White E. Saw palmetto supplement use and prostate cancer risk. Nutr Cancer 2006;55:21-7.

[34] Aliaev, IuG, Vinarov, A. Z., Lokshin, K. L., and Spivak, L. G. [Efficiency and safety of prostamol-Uno in patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis]. Urologiia. 2006;(1):47-50.

[35] Tacklind J, MacDonald R, Rutks I, Wilt TJ. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(2):CD001423.

[36] MacDonald, R., Tacklind, J. W., Rutks, I., and Wilt, T. J. Serenoa repens monotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): an updated Cochrane systematic review. BJU.Int. 2012;109(12):1756-1761.

[37] Agbabiaka, T. B., Pittler, M. H., Wider, B., and Ernst, E. Serenoa repens (saw palmetto): a systematic review of adverse events. Drug Saf 2009;32(8):637-647.

[38] Cheema P, El-Mefty O, Jazieh AR.  Intraoperative haemorrhage associated with the use of extract of Saw Palmetto herb: a case report and review of literature. J Intern Med 2001;250:167-9.

Rozdział 6.7 Śliwa afrykańskaPrunus africana L.

[1] Barlet A, Albrecht J, Aubert A, et al. [Efficacy of Pygeum africanum extract in the medical therapy of urination disorders due to benign prostatic hyperplasia: evaluation of objective and subjective  parameters. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter study]. Wien Klin Wochenschr 1990;102:667-73. PMID: 1702916.

[2] Breza J, Dzurny O, Borowka A, et al. Efficacy and acceptability of tadenan (Pygeum africanum extract) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): a multicentre trial in central Europe. Curr Med Res Opin 1998;14:127-39.

[3] Dufour B, Choquenet C, Revol M, et al. Controlled study of the effects of Pygeum africanum extract on the functional symptoms of prostatic adenoma. Ann Urol (Paris) 1984;18:193-5.

[4] Andro MC, Riffaud JP. Pygeum africanum extract for the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. A review of 25 years of published experience. Curr Ther Res 1995;56:796-817.

[5] Chatelain C, Autet W, Brackman F.  Comparison of once and twice daily dosage forms of Pygeum africanum extract in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized, double-blind study, with long-term open label extension.  Urology 1999;54:473-8.

[6] Ishani A, MacDonald R, Nelson D, et al. Pygeum africanum for the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis.  Am J Med 2000;109:654-64.

[7] Wilt T, Ishani A, Mac Donald R, et al. Pygeum africanum for benign prostatic hyperplasia.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;CD001044.

[8] Melo, E. A., Bertero, E. B., Rios, L. A., and Mattos, D., Jr. Evaluating the efficiency of a combination of Pygeum africanum and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) extracts in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial. Int Braz.J Urol. 2002;28(5):418-425.

[9] Brackman F and Autet W. Once and twice daily dosage regimens of Pygeum africanum extract (PA): a double-blind study in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) [abstract]. J Urology 1999;161(4S):361.

[10] Berges RR, Windeler J, Trampisch HJ, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.  Lancet 1995;345:1529-32.

Rozdział 6.8 Witania ospała – (Withania somnifera L.,  Ashwagandha)

[1] Upton R, ed. Ashwagandha Root (Withania somnifera): Analytical, quality control, and therapuetic monograph. Santa Cruz, CA: American Herbal Pharmacopoeia 2000:1-25.

[2] Ven Murthy, M. R., Ranjekar, P. K., Ramassamy, C., and Deshpande, M. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: ashwagandha. Cent.Nerv.Syst.Agents Med.Chem. 9-1-2010;10(3):238-246.

[3] Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012;34(3):255-62.

[4] Agnihotri AP, Sontakke SD, Thawani VR, Saoji A, Goswami VS. Effects of Withania somnifera in patients of schizophrenia: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled pilot trial study. Indian J Pharmacol. 2013;45(4):417-8.

[5] Cooley K, Szczurko O, Perri D, et al. Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial ISRC TN78958974. PLoS One 2009;4:e6628.

[6] Andallu B, Radhika B. Hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effect of winter cherry (Withania somnifera, Dunal) root. Indian J Exp Biol 2000;38:607-9.

[7] Ahmad MK, Mahdi AA, Shukla KK, et al. Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress in seminal plasma of infertile males. Fertil Steril 2010;94:989-96.

[8] Khyati S, Thaker B. A randomized double blind placebo controlled study of ashwagandha on generalized anxiety disorder. Int Ayurvedic Med J 2013;1(5):1-7.

[9] Chengappa KN, Bowie CR, Schlicht PJ, Fleet D, Brar JS, Jindal R. Randomized placebo-controlled adjunctive study of an extract of withania somnifera for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74(11):1076-83.

[10] Biswal BM, Sulaiman SA, Ismail HC, Zakaria H, Musa KI. Effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) on the development of chemotherapy-induced fatigue and quality of life in breast cancer patients. Integr Cancer Ther. 2013;12(4):312-22.

[11] Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012;34(3):255-62.

[12] Panda S, Kar A. Withania somnifera and Bauhinia purpurea in the regulation of circulating thyroid hormone concentrations in female mice.  J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67:233-39.

[13] Panda S, Kar A. Changes in thyroid hormone concentrations after administration of ashwagandha root extract to adult male mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 1998;50:1065-68.

Rozdział 6.9 Żeńszeń (Ginseng panax L).

[1] Heo, J. H., Lee, S. T., Chu, K., Oh, M. J., Park, H. J., Shim, J. Y., and Kim, M. An open-label trial of Korean red ginseng as an adjuvant treatment for cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Eur.J Neurol. 2008;15(8):865-868.

[2] Lee, S. T., Chu, K., Sim, J. Y., Heo, J. H., and Kim, M. Panax ginseng enhances cognitive performance in Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis.Assoc.Disord. 2008;22(3):222-226.

[3] An X, Zhang AL, Yang AW, et al. Oral ginseng formulae for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review. Resp Med 2011;105:165-76.

[4] Sorensen H, Sonne J.  A double-masked study of the effects of ginseng on cognitive functions.  Curr Ther Res 1996;57:959-68.

[5] Reay, J. L., Scholey, A. B., and Kennedy, D. O. Panax ginseng (G115) improves aspects of working memory performance and subjective ratings of calmness in healthy young adults. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2010;25(6):462-471.

[6] Forgo, I., Kayasseh, L., and Staub, J. J. [Effect of a standardized ginseng extract on general well-being, reaction time, lung function and gonadal hormones]. Med Welt 5-8-1981;32(19):751-756.

[7] Reay, J. L., Kennedy, D. O., and Scholey, A. B. Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity. J Psychopharmacol. 2005;19(4):357-365.

[8] Reay, J. L., Kennedy, D. O., and Scholey, A. B. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained 'mentally demanding' tasks. J Psychopharmacol. 2006;20(6):771-781.

[9] Kennedy, D. O., Haskell, C. F., Wesnes, K. A., and Scholey, A. B. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2004;79(3):401-411.

[10] Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, et al.  A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report.  J Urol 2002;168:2070-3.

[11] Jang, D. J., Lee, M. S., Shin, B. C., Lee, Y. C., and Ernst, E. Red ginseng for treating erectile dysfunction: a systematic review. Br.J Clin.Pharmacol. 2008;66(4):444-450.

[12] Kim, T. H., Jeon, S. H., Hahn, E. J., Paek, K. Y., Park, J. K., Youn, N. Y., and Lee, H. L. Effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) extract on male patients with erectile dysfunction. Asian J Androl 2009;11(3):356-361.

[13] Choi YD, et al.: Effects of Korean ginseng berry extract on sexual function in men with erectile dysfunction: a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study. Int J Impot Res 2013;25(2):45-50.

[14] Scaglione F, Cattaneo G, Alessandria M, Cogo R.  Efficacy and safety of the standardized Ginseng extract G115 for potentiating vaccination against the influenza syndrome and protection against the common cold.  Drugs Exp Clin Res 1996;22:65-72.

[15] Choi HK, Jung GW, Moon KH, et al.  Clinical study of SS-Cream in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation. Urology 2000;55:257-61.

[16] Oh, K. J., Chae, M. J., Lee, H. S., Hong, H. D., and Park, K. Effects of Korean red ginseng on sexual arousal in menopausal women: placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover clinical study. J Sex Med 2010;7(4 Pt 1):1469-1477.

[17] Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E.  The efficacy of ginseng.  A systemic review of randomized clinical trials.  Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999;55:567-75.

[18] Allen JD, McLung J, Nelson AG, Welsch M.  Ginseng supplementation does not enhance healthy young adults' peak aerobic exercise performance.  J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:462-6.

[19] Engels HJ, Wirth JC. No ergogenic effects of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) during grades maximal aerobic exercise. J Am Diet Assoc 1997;97:1110-5.

[20] Kulaputana, O., Thanakomsirichot, S., and Anomasiri, W. Ginseng supplementation does not change lactate threshold and physical performances in physically active Thai men. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90(6):1172-1179.

[21] Engels, H. J., Fahlman, M. M., and Wirth, J. C. Effects of ginseng on secretory IgA, performance, and recovery from interval exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35(4):690-696.

[22] Ping FW, Keong CC, Bandyopadhyay A. Effects of acute supplementation of Panax ginseng on endurance running in a hot & humid environment. Indian J Med Res 2011;133:96-102.

[23] Yakoot M, Salem A, Helmy S. Effect of Memo, a natural formula combination, on Mini-Mental State Examination scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Clin Interv Aging 2013;8:975-81.

[24] Scaglione F, Weiser K, Alessandria M.  Effects of the standardized ginseng extract G115 (Reg.) in patients with chronic bronchitis: A nonblinded, randomized, comparative pilot study.  Clin Drug Invest 2001;21:41-5.

[25] Cui Y, Shu XO, Gao YT, et al. Association of ginseng use with survival and quality of life among breast cancer patients. Am J Epidemiol 2006;163:645-53.

[26] Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A.  Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1995;18:1373-5.

[27] Vuksan, V. et al: Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves glucose and insulin regulation in well-controlled, type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc.Dis 2008;18(1):46-56.

[28] Oh MR, Park SH, Kim SY, Back HI, Kim MG, Jeon JY, Ha KC, Na WT, Cha YS, Park BH, Park TS, Chae SW. Postprandial glucose-lowering effects of fermented red ginseng in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014;14:237.

[29] Reeds DN, Patterson BW, Okunade A, et al. Ginseng and ginsenoside re do not improve beta-cell function or insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. Diabetes Care 2011;34:1071-6.

[30] Kim, S., Shin, B. C., Lee, M. S., Lee, H., and Ernst, E. Red ginseng for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Chin J Integr.Med 2011;17(12):937-944.

[31] Ni, H. X., Yu, N. J., and Yang, X. H. The study of ginsenoside on PPARgamma expression of mononuclear macrophage in type 2 diabetes. Mol.Biol Rep. 2010;37(6):2975-2979.

[32] Han, K. H., Choe, S. C., Kim, H. S., Sohn, D. W., Nam, K. Y., Oh, B. H., Lee, M. M., Park, Y. B., Choi, Y. S., Seo, J. D., and Lee, Y. W. Effect of red ginseng on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension and white coat hypertension. Am J Chin Med 1998;26(2):199-209.

[33] Rhee MY, Cho B, Kim KI, Kim J, Kim MK, Lee EK, Kim HJ, Kim CH. Blood pressure lowering effect of Korea ginseng derived ginseol K-g1. Am J Chin Med 2014;42(3):605-18.

[34] Lee, J. S., Kwon, K. A., Jung, H. S., Kim, J. H., and Hahm, K. B. Korea red ginseng on Helicobacter pylori-induced halitosis: newer therapeutic strategy and a plausible mechanism. Digestion 2009;80(3):192-199.

[35] Doosti A, Lotfi Y, Moossavi A, Bakhshi E, Talasaz AH, Hoorzad A. Comparison of the effects of N-acetyl-cysteine and ginseng in prevention of noise induced hearing loss in male textile workers. Noise Health 2014;16(71):223-7.

[36] Wiklund IK, Mattsson LA, Lindgren R, et al.  Effects of a standardized ginseng extract on quality of life and physiological parameters in symptomatic postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res  1999;19:89-99.

[37] Kim SY, Seo SK, Choi YM, Jeon YE, Lim KJ, Cho S, Choi YS, Lee BS. Effects of red ginseng supplementation on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Menopause 2012;19(4):461-6.

[38] Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Acute, dose-dependent cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng and their combination in healthy young volunteers: differential interactions with cognitive demand. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:35-44.

[39] Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, and Wesnes KA. Differential, dose dependent changes in cognitive performance following acute administration of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination to healthy young volunteers. Nutr.Neurosci. 2001;4(5):399-412.

[40] Cai, T., Wagenlehner, F. M., Mazzoli, S., Meacci, F., Mondaini, N., Nesi, G., Tiscione, D., Malossini, G., and Bartoletti, R. Semen quality in patients with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection treated concurrently with prulifloxacin and a phytotherapeutic agent. J Androl 2012;33(4):615-623.

[41] Kim HG, Cho JH, Yoo SR, Lee JS, Han JM, Lee NH, Ahn YC, Son CG. Antifatigue effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS One 2013;8(4):e61271.

[42] Etemadifar M, Sayahi F, Abtahi SH, Shemshaki H, Dorooshi GA, Goodarzi M, Akbari M, Fereidan-Esfahani M. Ginseng in the treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study. Int J Neurosci 2013;123(7):480-6.

[43] Lee CS, Lee JH, Oh M, Choi KM, Jeong MR, Park JD, Kwon DY, Ha KC, Park EO, Lee N, Kim SY, Choi EK, Kim MG, Chae SW. Preventive effect of Korean red ginseng for acute respiratory illness: a randomized and double-blind clinical trial. J Korean Med Sci 2012;27(12):1472-8.

[44] Lee JK, Kang HW, Kim JH, Lim YJ, Koh MS, Lee JH. Effects of Korean red ginseng as an adjuvant to bile acids in medical dissolution therapy for gallstones: a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot trial. Food Funct 2013;4(1):116-20.

[45] Hopkins MP, Androff L, Benninghoff AS.  Ginseng face cream and unexplained vaginal bleeding.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;159:1121-2.

[46] Greenspan EM.  Ginseng and vaginal bleeding [letter].  JAMA 1983;249:2018.

[47] Palop-Larrea V, Gonzalvez-Perales JL, Catalan-Oliver C, et al.  Metrorrhagia and ginseng.  Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:1347-8.

[48] Gonzalez-Seijo JC, Ramos YM, Lastra I.  Manic episode and ginseng: Report of a possible case. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1995;15:447-8.

[49] Al-Nakib W, Higgins PG, Barrow I, et al. Prophylaxis and treatment of rhinovirus colds with zinc gluconate lozenges. J Antimicrob Chemother 1987;20:893-901.

[50] Park HJ, Lee JH, Song YB, Park KH.  Effects of dietary supplementation of lipophilic fraction from Panax ginseng on cGMP and cAMP in rat platelets and on blood coagulation. Biol Pharm Bull 1996;19:1434-9.

[51] Yun YP, Do JH, Ko SR, et al. Effects of Korean red ginseng and its mixed prescription on the high molecular weight dextran-induced blood stasis in rats and human platelet aggregation. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;77:259-64.

[52] Palmer BV, Montgomery AC, Monteiro JC, et al. Gin Seng and mastalgia [letter]. BMJ 1978;1:1284.

[53] Eagon PK, Elm MS, Hunter DS, et al. Medicinal herbs: modulation of estrogen action. Era of Hope Mtg, Dept Defense; Breast Cancer Res Prog, Atlanta, GA 2000;Jun 8-11.

[54] Hammond TG, Whitworth JA. Adverse reactions to ginseng [letter]. Med J Aust 1981;1:492.

[55] Punnonen R, Lukola A.  Oestrogen-like effect of ginseng. Br Med J 1980;281:1110.

[56] Lee YJ, Jin YR, Lim WC, et al.  Ginsenoside-Rb1 acts as a weak phytoestrogen in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Arch Pharm Res 2003;26:58-63.

[57] Becker BN.  Ginseng-induced diuretic resistance.  JAMA 1996;276:606-7.

[58] Caron MF, Hotsko AL, Robertson S, et al.  Electrocardiographic and hemodynamic effects of Panax ginseng. Ann Pharmacother 2002;36:758-63.

[59] Janetzky K, Morreale AP.  Probable interaction between warfarin and ginseng. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1997;54:692-3.

[60] Zhu M, Chan KW, Ng LS, et al. Possible influences of ginseng on the pharmacodynamics of warfarin in rats.  J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51:175-80.

[61] Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, et al. Effect of St John’s wort and ginseng on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004;57:592-9.

[62] Lee SH, Ahn YM, Ahn SY, et al. Interaction between warfarin and Panax ginseng in ischemic stroke patients.  J Altern Complement Med 2008;14:715-721.

[63] Lee, Y. H., Lee, B. K., Choi, Y. J., Yoon, I. K., Chang, B. C., and Gwak, H. S. Interaction between warfarin and Korean red ginseng in patients with cardiac valve replacement. Int J Cardiol. 11-19-2010;145(2):275-276.

[64] Lee FC, Ko JH, Park JK, Lee JS.  Effects of Panax ginseng on blood alcohol clearance in man.  Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1987;14:543-6.

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